Association of maternal periodontal health with preterm birth and a low birth weight among newborns: A cross-sectional study
Jyotirmay1, Amit Kumar2, Saakshi Gulati3, Stuti Kumari4, Jazib Nazeer5, Pankaj Singh6
1 Department of Orthodontics, Patna Dental College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India
2 Dental Officer, Sub Divisional Hospital, Forbesganj, Araria, Bihar, India
3 Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Sathyabama Dental College and Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India
4 Department of Dentistry, SKMCH, Muzaffarpur, Bihar, India
5 Department of Oral Pathology and Microbiology, Patna Dental College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India
6 Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Patna Dental College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar, India
Department of Orthodontics, Patna Dental College and Hospital, Patna, Bihar
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Background: Despite numerous advancements in prenatal and natal care, complications arising in pregnancy and related to child-birth are major concerns in public health. Various risk factors responsible for poor outcomes include - life-style, biological, social, infectious, hormonal, and metabolic conditions. Oral diseases have been identified as a risk factor for low birth weight both under preterm and at-term states.
Aim: The aim of this study was to find an association of maternal periodontal health with preterm births and low birth weight among newborn infants.
Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study comprising of 300 pregnant females who had underwent child deliveries within the past 24 h with an age range of 21–30 years. Study participants were selected after interviewing for gestational history and obtaining prior informed consent. Postpartum female subjects following delivery within a time period of 24 h were included in the study. Gingival index (by Loe and Silness) was calculated for the evaluation of bleeding from gingival tooth surfaces. All data tabulations were done by performing statistical analysis into Microsoft Excel Worksheet 2007.
Results: Mean age group of study participants was calculated to be 25 years. On analyzing brushing frequency, it was observed that approximately 40% brushed three times daily whereas 35% used to brush twice daily while the remaining, 25% brushed only once daily. No statistical significance was obtained on comparing brushing frequency with gingival health (P = 0.8). Similarly, no association was found between periodontal health and preterm low weight child births.
Conclusion: This study found no association between maternal periodontal health and preterm and low-birth weight births among newborns.