Assessment of oral health status and treatment needs of drug abusers in Bhubaneswar city: A cross-sectional study
Gunjan Kumar1, Shilpa Rai1, Alok Kumar Sethi2, Akhilesh Kumar Singh3, Ranjan Mani Tripathi4, Avinash Jnaneswar1
1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, KIIT Deemed to be University, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India
3 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Index Institute of Dental Sciences, Indore, Madhya Pradesh, India
Dr. Gunjan Kumar
Department of Public Health Dentistry, Kalinga Institute of Dental Sciences, KIIT Deemed to be University, Campus - 5, Patia, Bhubaneswar - 751 024, Odisha
Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None
Introduction: Oral health of drug abusers has received less attention. Drug users may also have special needs in relation to receiving dental care. Evaluation of the oral health status of drug abusers is important as in India, where the disease burden is enormous, and availability of curative treatment is quite inadequate, preventive approach shall prove to be better than curative treatment.
Aim: To determine the oral health status and treatment needs of drug abusers residing in rehabilitation centers in Bhubaneswar.
Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the drug de-addiction cum rehabilitation centers in Bhubaneswar city, Odisha. A self-administered questionnaire was used to record oral health practices of the inmates and the type of drugs used by them in the past. Oral health was recorded using modified WHO 2013 pro forma. Mann–Whitney U-test and Kruskal–Wallis test were applied to find any significant differences between different variables in groups.
Results: All the participants were male and alcohol was the most commonly used drug, followed by tobacco and ganja. The horizontal brushing technique was the most widely used technique. Mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) score was recorded to be 1.48. Leukoplakia, acute necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis, candidiasis, and ulceration were among the few oral lesions found in the inmates. Around 67.66% of inmates exhibited erosion of the enamel surface, while 6.59% had signs of enamel fracture. Statistically, significant difference was found for the types of drugs used and DMFT score and type of drug used and dental erosion.
Conclusion: Oral health status of drug users is poor and needs immediate attention. Oral health education needs to be imparted among them. The government needs to enforce the establishment of dental clinics in these centers so that the oral health of these people can be taken care of.