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National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery
 
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EDITORIAL
Year : 2018  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 1  

Platelet-rich fibrin: Emerging biomaterial in regeneration


Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit, Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP, India

Date of Web Publication28-May-2018

Correspondence Address:
Naresh Kumar Sharma
Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Unit, Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Dental Sciences, Institute of Medical Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, UP
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/njms.NJMS_40_18

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How to cite this article:
Sharma NK. Platelet-rich fibrin: Emerging biomaterial in regeneration. Natl J Maxillofac Surg 2018;9:1

How to cite this URL:
Sharma NK. Platelet-rich fibrin: Emerging biomaterial in regeneration. Natl J Maxillofac Surg [serial online] 2018 [cited 2019 Jun 26];9:1. Available from: http://www.njms.in/text.asp?2018/9/1/1/233284





Use of biomaterials for regenerative therapies is not a new concept. Almost two decades have passed since the utilization of platelet concentrates for repair and regeneration of the oral tissues. The introduction of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) as an autologous biomaterial has set in motion an exciting and promising era in the advancement of tissue healing and regeneration in the fields of dental implantology, periodontology, oral surgery, and regenerative endodontics. Platelets in the fibrin matrix play a crucial role not only in the hemostasis but also in the wound healing process. They are important reservoirs for growth factors since they release high concentration of biologically active proteins that support recruitment of cells from surrounding host tissue and stimulate growth and cell morphogenesis, thus promoting bone and soft-tissue healing. PRF is a supernatural concentration of growth factors such as platelet-derived growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, transforming growth factor-B, insulin-like growth factor, bone morphogenetic protein, healing matrix proteins, or cytokines (thrombospondin-1, fibronectin, vitronectin, osteocalcin, and osteonectin) to name a few.

PRF was introduced by Joseph Choukron in 2001 since then various modifications have been made, especially in terms of centrifugation speed and time so as to deliver the maximum amount of growth factors and cells (platelets and leukocytes) to the desired area. It also consists of cellular structures including leukocytes and platelets both of which play a very important role in tissue healing. Current research is based on utilizing “low-speed centrifugation concept” to form advanced-PRF and injectable-PRF (I-PRF) which has more even distribution of number of leukocytes and a more constant release of growth factors over a period of 10–14 days. I-PRF tops the chart having the highest concentration of leukocytes. PRF is produced by centrifugation of patient's own blood at 2700 rpm (12 min). The goal was to spin at high speeds to separate the layers into bottom layer of red blood cells and upper layers of leucocytes and plasma.

I-PRF is produced by centrifugation of patient's own blood at 700 rpm (60 g) for merely 3 min without the addition of any anticoagulants, unlike its first-generation counterpart.

The use of PRF enables local delivery of a fibrin matrix, cells, growth factors, and proteins that provide unique biological properties and cues for promoting new blood vessel formation and potentially accelerating wound healing and tissue regeneration. The application of PRF in oral surgery, especially in the field of soft tissue and bone regeneration, has enormous therapeutic implications.

The spectrum of PRF includes guided bone regeneration and accelerates both hard- and soft-tissue healing in socket grafting, root coverage procedures, sinus lift procedures, bone regeneration around dental implants, treatment of mucogingival recession, temporomandibular joint pain, and esthetic facial surgeries.






 

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